ffi.gc(p, None)removes the destructor on an object previously created by another call to
bool(ffi.cast("primitive type", x))now returns False if the value is zero (including
-0.0), and True otherwise. Previously this would only return False for cdata objects of a pointer type when the pointer is NULL.
ffi.from_buffer(bytearray-object)is now supported. (The reason it was not supported was that it was hard to do in PyPy, but it works since PyPy 5.3.) To call a C function with a
char *argument from a buffer object—now including bytearrays—you write
lib.foo(ffi.from_buffer(x)). Additionally, this is now supported:
p[0:length] = bytearray-object. The problem with this was that a iterating over bytearrays gives numbers instead of characters. (Now it is implemented with just a memcpy, of course, not actually iterating over the characters.)
- C++: compiling the generated C code with C++ was supposed to work,
but failed if you make use the
booltype (because that is rendered as the C
_Booltype, which doesn’t exist in C++).
help(lib.myfunc)now give useful information, as well as
pis a struct or pointer-to-struct.
- extern “Python+C”
- in API mode,
lib.foo.__doc__contains the C signature now. On CPython you can say
help(lib.foo), but for some reason
help(lib.foo)on PyPy) is still useless; I haven’t yet figured out the hacks needed to convince
pydocto show more. (You can use
dir(lib)but it is not most helpful.)
- Yet another attempt at robustness of
ffi.def_extern()against CPython’s interpreter shutdown logic.
- Fix 1.5.1 for Python 2.6.
- A few installation-time tweaks (thanks Stefano!)
- Issue #245: Win32:
__stdcallwas never generated for
- Issue #246: trying to be more robust against CPython’s fragile interpreter shutdown logic
Nothing changed from v1.4.1.
- Fix the compilation failure of cffi on CPython 3.5.0. (3.5.1 works; some detail changed that makes some underscore-starting macros disappear from view of extension modules, and I worked around it, thinking it changed in all 3.5 versions—but no: it was only in 3.5.1.)
- A better way to do callbacks has been added (faster and more
portable, and usually cleaner). It is a mechanism for the
out-of-line API mode that replaces the dynamic creation of callback
objects (i.e. C functions that invoke Python) with the static
cdef()of which callbacks are needed. This is more C-like, in that you have to structure your code around the idea that you get a fixed number of function pointers, instead of creating them on-the-fly.
ffi.compile()now takes an optional
True, distutils prints the calls to the compiler.
ffi.compile()used to fail if given
sourceswith a path that includes
ffi.init_once()added. See docs.
dir(lib)now works on libs returned by
- Cleaned up and modernized the content of the
demosubdirectory in the sources (thanks matti!).
ffi.new_handle()is now guaranteed to return unique
void *values, even if called twice on the same object. Previously, in that case, CPython would return two
cdataobjects with the same
void *value. This change is useful to add and remove handles from a global dict (or set) without worrying about duplicates. It already used to work like that on PyPy. This change can break code that used to work on CPython by relying on the object to be kept alive by other means than keeping the result of ffi.new_handle() alive. (The corresponding warning in the docs of
ffi.new_handle()has been here since v0.8!)
- The optional typedefs (
FILEand all Windows types) were not always available from out-of-line FFI objects.
- Opaque enums are phased out from the cdefs: they now give a warning,
instead of (possibly wrongly) being assumed equal to
unsigned int. Please report if you get a reasonable use case for them.
- Some parsing details, notably
volatileis passed along like
restrict. Also, older versions of pycparser mis-parse some pointer-to-pointer types like
char * const *: the “const” ends up at the wrong place. Added a workaround.
- Added ffi.memmove().
- Pull request #64: out-of-line API mode: we can now declare
floating-point types with
typedef float... foo_t;. This only works if
foo_tis a float or a double, not
- Issue #217: fix possible unaligned pointer manipulation, which crashes on some architectures (64-bit, non-x86).
- Issues #64 and #126: when using
restrictkeywords are copied from the cdef to the generated C code; this fixes warnings by the C compiler. It also fixes corner cases like
typedef const int T; T a;which would previously not consider
aas a constant. (The cdata objects themselves are never
- Win32: support for
__stdcall. For callbacks and function pointers; regular C functions still don’t need to have their calling convention declared.
- Windows: CPython 2.7 distutils doesn’t work with Microsoft’s official
Visual Studio for Python, and I’m told this is not a bug. For
ffi.compile(), we removed a workaround that was inside cffi but
which had unwanted side-effects. Try saying
import setuptoolsfirst, which patches distutils...
Nothing changed from v1.2.0.
- Out-of-line mode:
int a[...];can be used to declare a structure field or global variable which is, simultaneously, of total length unknown to the C compiler (the
apart) and each element is itself an array of N integers, where the value of N is known to the C compiler (the
[...]parts around it). Similarly,
int a[...];is supported (but probably less useful: remember that in C it means
- PyPy: the
lib.some_functionobjects were missing the attributes
__doc__that are expected e.g. by some decorators-management functions from
- Out-of-line API mode: you can now do
from _example.lib import xto import the name
_example.lib, even though the
libobject is not a standard module object. (Also works in
from _example.lib import *, but this is even more of a hack and will fail if
libhappens to declare a name called
__all__. Note that
*excludes the global variables; only the functions and constants make sense to import like this.)
lib.__dict__works again and gives you a copy of the dict—assuming that
libhas got no symbol called precisely
__dict__. (In general, it is safer to use
- Out-of-line API mode: global variables are now fetched on demand at
every access. It fixes issue #212 (Windows DLL variables), and also
allows variables that are defined as dynamic macros (like
__thread-local variables. (This change might also tighten the C compiler’s check on the variables’ type.)
- Issue #209: dereferencing NULL pointers now raises RuntimeError instead of segfaulting. Meant as a debugging aid. The check is only for NULL: if you dereference random or dead pointers you might still get segfaults.
- Issue #152: callbacks: added an argument
ffi.callback(..., onerror=...). If the main callback function raises an exception and
onerroris provided, then
onerror(exception, exc_value, traceback)is called. This is similar to writing a
try: except:in the main callback function, but in some cases (e.g. a signal) an exception can occur at the very start of the callback function—before it had time to enter the
- Issue #115: added
ffi.new_allocator(), which officializes support for alternative allocators.
ffi.gc(): fixed a race condition in multithreaded programs introduced in 1.1.1
- Out-of-line mode:
ffi.getwinerror()didn’t accept their arguments as keyword arguments, unlike their in-line mode equivalent. (It worked in PyPy.)
- Out-of-line ABI mode: documented a restriction of
ffi.dlopen()when compared to the in-line mode.
ffi.gc(): when called several times with equal pointers, it was accidentally registering only the last destructor, or even none at all depending on details. (It was correctly registering all of them only in PyPy, and only with the out-of-line FFIs.)
- Out-of-line API mode: we can now declare integer types with
typedef int... foo_t;. The exact size and signedness of
foo_tis figured out by the compiler.
- Out-of-line API mode: we can now declare multidimensional arrays
(as fields or as globals) with
int n[...][...]. Before, only the outermost dimension would support the
- Out-of-line ABI mode: we now support any constant declaration,
instead of only integers whose value is given in the cdef. Such “new”
constants, i.e. either non-integers or without a value given in the
cdef, must correspond to actual symbols in the lib. At runtime they
are looked up the first time we access them. This is useful if the
extern const sometype somename;.
ffi.addressof(lib, "func_name")now returns a regular cdata object of type “pointer to function”. You can use it on any function from a library in API mode (in ABI mode, all functions are already regular cdata objects). To support this, you need to recompile your cffi modules.
- Issue #198: in API mode, if you declare constants of a
structtype, what you saw from lib.CONSTANT was corrupted.
- Issue #196:
ffi.set_source("package._ffi", None)would incorrectly generate the Python source to
package/_ffi.py. Also fixed: in some cases, if the C file was in
build/foo.c, the .o file would be put in
- Same as 1.0.2, apart from doc and test fixes on some platforms.
- Variadic C functions (ending in a ”...” argument) were not supported in the out-of-line ABI mode. This was a bug—there was even a (non-working) example doing exactly that!
ffi.set_source()crashed if passed a
sources=[..]argument. Fixed by chrippa on pull request #60.
- Issue #193: if we use a struct between the first cdef() where it is declared and another cdef() where its fields are defined, then this definition was ignored.
- Enums were buggy if you used too many ”...” in their definition.