Using the ffi/lib objects

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Working with pointers, structures and arrays

The C code’s integers and floating-point values are mapped to Python’s regular int, long and float. Moreover, the C type char corresponds to single-character strings in Python. (If you want it to map to small integers, use either signed char or unsigned char.)

Similarly, the C type wchar_t corresponds to single-character unicode strings. Note that in some situations (a narrow Python build with an underlying 4-bytes wchar_t type), a single wchar_t character may correspond to a pair of surrogates, which is represented as a unicode string of length 2. If you need to convert such a 2-chars unicode string to an integer, ord(x) does not work; use instead int(ffi.cast('wchar_t', x)).

Pointers, structures and arrays are more complex: they don’t have an obvious Python equivalent. Thus, they correspond to objects of type cdata, which are printed for example as <cdata 'struct foo_s *' 0xa3290d8>.

ffi.new(ctype, [initializer]): this function builds and returns a new cdata object of the given ctype. The ctype is usually some constant string describing the C type. It must be a pointer or array type. If it is a pointer, e.g. "int *" or struct foo *, then it allocates the memory for one int or struct foo. If it is an array, e.g. int[10], then it allocates the memory for ten int. In both cases the returned cdata is of type ctype.

The memory is initially filled with zeros. An initializer can be given too, as described later.

Example:

>>> ffi.new("int *")
<cdata 'int *' owning 4 bytes>
>>> ffi.new("int[10]")
<cdata 'int[10]' owning 40 bytes>

>>> ffi.new("char *")          # allocates only one char---not a C string!
<cdata 'char *' owning 1 bytes>
>>> ffi.new("char[]", "foobar")  # this allocates a C string, ending in \0
<cdata 'char[]' owning 7 bytes>

Unlike C, the returned pointer object has ownership on the allocated memory: when this exact object is garbage-collected, then the memory is freed. If, at the level of C, you store a pointer to the memory somewhere else, then make sure you also keep the object alive for as long as needed. (This also applies if you immediately cast the returned pointer to a pointer of a different type: only the original object has ownership, so you must keep it alive. As soon as you forget it, then the casted pointer will point to garbage! In other words, the ownership rules are attached to the wrapper cdata objects: they are not, and cannot, be attached to the underlying raw memory.) Example:

global_weakkeydict = weakref.WeakKeyDictionary()

def make_foo():
    s1   = ffi.new("struct foo *")
    fld1 = ffi.new("struct bar *")
    fld2 = ffi.new("struct bar *")
    s1.thefield1 = fld1
    s1.thefield2 = fld2
    # here the 'fld1' and 'fld2' object must not go away,
    # otherwise 's1.thefield1/2' will point to garbage!
    global_weakkeydict[s1] = (fld1, fld2)
    # now 's1' keeps alive 'fld1' and 'fld2'.  When 's1' goes
    # away, then the weak dictionary entry will be removed.
    return s1

Usually you don’t need a weak dict: for example, to call a function with a char * * argument that contains a pointer to a char * pointer, it is enough to do this:

p = ffi.new("char[]", "hello, world")    # p is a 'char *'
q = ffi.new("char **", p)                # q is a 'char **'
lib.myfunction(q)
# p is alive at least until here, so that's fine

However, this is always wrong (usage of freed memory):

p = ffi.new("char **", ffi.new("char[]", "hello, world"))
# WRONG!  as soon as p is built, the inner ffi.new() gets freed!

This is wrong too, for the same reason:

p = ffi.new("struct my_stuff")
p.foo = ffi.new("char[]", "hello, world")
# WRONG!  as soon as p.foo is set, the ffi.new() gets freed!

The cdata objects support mostly the same operations as in C: you can read or write from pointers, arrays and structures. Dereferencing a pointer is done usually in C with the syntax *p, which is not valid Python, so instead you have to use the alternative syntax p[0] (which is also valid C). Additionally, the p.x and p->x syntaxes in C both become p.x in Python.

We have ffi.NULL to use in the same places as the C NULL. Like the latter, it is actually defined to be ffi.cast("void *", 0). For example, reading a NULL pointer returns a <cdata 'type *' NULL>, which you can check for e.g. by comparing it with ffi.NULL.

There is no general equivalent to the & operator in C (because it would not fit nicely in the model, and it does not seem to be needed here). But see ffi.addressof().

Any operation that would in C return a pointer or array or struct type gives you a fresh cdata object. Unlike the “original” one, these fresh cdata objects don’t have ownership: they are merely references to existing memory.

As an exception to the above rule, dereferencing a pointer that owns a struct or union object returns a cdata struct or union object that “co-owns” the same memory. Thus in this case there are two objects that can keep the same memory alive. This is done for cases where you really want to have a struct object but don’t have any convenient place to keep alive the original pointer object (returned by ffi.new()).

Example:

# void somefunction(int *);

x = ffi.new("int *")      # allocate one int, and return a pointer to it
x[0] = 42                 # fill it
lib.somefunction(x)       # call the C function
print x[0]                # read the possibly-changed value

The equivalent of C casts are provided with ffi.cast("type", value). They should work in the same cases as they do in C. Additionally, this is the only way to get cdata objects of integer or floating-point type:

>>> x = ffi.cast("int", 42)
>>> x
<cdata 'int' 42>
>>> int(x)
42

To cast a pointer to an int, cast it to intptr_t or uintptr_t, which are defined by C to be large enough integer types (example on 32 bits):

>>> int(ffi.cast("intptr_t", pointer_cdata))    # signed
-1340782304
>>> int(ffi.cast("uintptr_t", pointer_cdata))   # unsigned
2954184992L

The initializer given as the optional second argument to ffi.new() can be mostly anything that you would use as an initializer for C code, with lists or tuples instead of using the C syntax { .., .., .. }. Example:

typedef struct { int x, y; } foo_t;

foo_t v = { 1, 2 };            // C syntax
v = ffi.new("foo_t *", [1, 2]) # CFFI equivalent

foo_t v = { .y=1, .x=2 };                // C99 syntax
v = ffi.new("foo_t *", {'y': 1, 'x': 2}) # CFFI equivalent

Like C, arrays of chars can also be initialized from a string, in which case a terminating null character is appended implicitly:

>>> x = ffi.new("char[]", "hello")
>>> x
<cdata 'char[]' owning 6 bytes>
>>> len(x)        # the actual size of the array
6
>>> x[5]          # the last item in the array
'\x00'
>>> x[0] = 'H'    # change the first item
>>> ffi.string(x) # interpret 'x' as a regular null-terminated string
'Hello'

Similarly, arrays of wchar_t can be initialized from a unicode string, and calling ffi.string() on the cdata object returns the current unicode string stored in the wchar_t array (adding surrogates if necessary).

Note that unlike Python lists or tuples, but like C, you cannot index in a C array from the end using negative numbers.

More generally, the C array types can have their length unspecified in C types, as long as their length can be derived from the initializer, like in C:

int array[] = { 1, 2, 3, 4 };           // C syntax
array = ffi.new("int[]", [1, 2, 3, 4])  # CFFI equivalent

As an extension, the initializer can also be just a number, giving the length (in case you just want zero-initialization):

int array[1000];                  // C syntax
array = ffi.new("int[1000]")      # CFFI 1st equivalent
array = ffi.new("int[]", 1000)    # CFFI 2nd equivalent

This is useful if the length is not actually a constant, to avoid things like ffi.new("int[%d]" % x). Indeed, this is not recommended: ffi normally caches the string "int[]" to not need to re-parse it all the time.

The C99 variable-sized structures are supported too, as long as the initializer says how long the array should be:

# typedef struct { int x; int y[]; } foo_t;

p = ffi.new("foo_t *", [5, [6, 7, 8]]) # length 3
p = ffi.new("foo_t *", [5, 3])         # length 3 with 0 in the array
p = ffi.new("foo_t *", {'y': 3})       # length 3 with 0 everywhere

Finally, note that any Python object used as initializer can also be used directly without ffi.new() in assignments to array items or struct fields. In fact, p = ffi.new("T*", initializer) is equivalent to p = ffi.new("T*"); p[0] = initializer. Examples:

# if 'p' is a <cdata 'int[5][5]'>
p[2] = [10, 20]             # writes to p[2][0] and p[2][1]

# if 'p' is a <cdata 'foo_t *'>, and foo_t has fields x, y and z
p[0] = {'x': 10, 'z': 20}   # writes to p.x and p.z; p.y unmodified

# if, on the other hand, foo_t has a field 'char a[5]':
p.a = "abc"                 # writes 'a', 'b', 'c' and '\0'; p.a[4] unmodified

In function calls, when passing arguments, these rules can be used too; see Function calls.

Python 3 support

Python 3 is supported, but the main point to note is that the char C type corresponds to the bytes Python type, and not str. It is your responsibility to encode/decode all Python strings to bytes when passing them to or receiving them from CFFI.

This only concerns the char type and derivative types; other parts of the API that accept strings in Python 2 continue to accept strings in Python 3.

An example of calling a main-like thing

Imagine we have something like this:

from cffi import FFI
ffi = FFI()
ffi.cdef("""
   int main_like(int argv, char *argv[]);
""")
lib = ffi.dlopen("some_library.so")

Now, everything is simple, except, how do we create the char** argument here? The first idea:

lib.main_like(2, ["arg0", "arg1"])

does not work, because the initializer receives two Python str objects where it was expecting <cdata 'char *'> objects. You need to use ffi.new() explicitly to make these objects:

lib.main_like(2, [ffi.new("char[]", "arg0"),
                  ffi.new("char[]", "arg1")])

Note that the two <cdata 'char[]'> objects are kept alive for the duration of the call: they are only freed when the list itself is freed, and the list is only freed when the call returns.

If you want instead to build an “argv” variable that you want to reuse, then more care is needed:

# DOES NOT WORK!
argv = ffi.new("char *[]", [ffi.new("char[]", "arg0"),
                            ffi.new("char[]", "arg1")])

In the above example, the inner “arg0” string is deallocated as soon as “argv” is built. You have to make sure that you keep a reference to the inner “char[]” objects, either directly or by keeping the list alive like this:

argv_keepalive = [ffi.new("char[]", "arg0"),
                  ffi.new("char[]", "arg1")]
argv = ffi.new("char *[]", argv_keepalive)

Function calls

When calling C functions, passing arguments follows mostly the same rules as assigning to structure fields, and the return value follows the same rules as reading a structure field. For example:

# int foo(short a, int b);

n = lib.foo(2, 3)     # returns a normal integer
lib.foo(40000, 3)     # raises OverflowError

You can pass to char * arguments a normal Python string (but don’t pass a normal Python string to functions that take a char * argument and may mutate it!):

# size_t strlen(const char *);

assert lib.strlen("hello") == 5

You can also pass unicode strings as wchar_t * arguments. Note that the C language makes no difference between argument declarations that use type * or type[]. For example, int * is fully equivalent to int[] (or even int[5]; the 5 is ignored). For CFFI, this means that you can always pass arguments that can be converted to either int * or int[]. For example:

# void do_something_with_array(int *array);

lib.do_something_with_array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])    # works for int[]

See Reference: conversions for a similar way to pass struct foo_s * arguments—but in general, it is clearer in this case to pass ffi.new('struct foo_s *', initializer).

CFFI supports passing and returning structs and unions to functions and callbacks. Example:

# struct foo_s { int a, b; };
# struct foo_s function_returning_a_struct(void);

myfoo = lib.function_returning_a_struct()
# `myfoo`: <cdata 'struct foo_s' owning 8 bytes>

For performance, non-variadic API-level functions that you get by writing lib.some_function are not <cdata> objects, but an object of a different type (on CPython, <built-in function>). This means you cannot pass them directly to some other C function expecting a function pointer argument. Only ffi.typeof() works on them. To get a cdata containing a regular function pointer, use ffi.addressof(lib, "name").

There are a few (obscure) limitations to the supported argument and return types. These limitations come from libffi and apply only to calling <cdata> function pointers; in other words, they don’t apply to non-variadic cdef()-declared functions if you are using the API mode. The limitations are that you cannot pass directly as argument or return type:

  • a union (but a pointer to a union is fine);
  • a struct which uses bitfields (but a pointer to such a struct is fine);
  • a struct that was declared with “...” in the cdef().

In API mode, you can work around these limitations: for example, if you need to call such a function pointer from Python, you can instead write a custom C function that accepts the function pointer and the real arguments and that does the call from C. Then declare that custom C function in the cdef() and use it from Python.

Variadic function calls

Variadic functions in C (which end with “...” as their last argument) can be declared and called normally, with the exception that all the arguments passed in the variable part must be cdata objects. This is because it would not be possible to guess, if you wrote this:

lib.printf("hello, %d\n", 42)   # doesn't work!

that you really meant the 42 to be passed as a C int, and not a long or long long. The same issue occurs with float versus double. So you have to force cdata objects of the C type you want, if necessary with ffi.cast():

lib.printf("hello, %d\n", ffi.cast("int", 42))
lib.printf("hello, %ld\n", ffi.cast("long", 42))
lib.printf("hello, %f\n", ffi.cast("double", 42))

But of course:

lib.printf("hello, %s\n", ffi.new("char[]", "world"))

Note that if you are using dlopen(), the function declaration in the cdef() must match the original one in C exactly, as usual — in particular, if this function is variadic in C, then its cdef() declaration must also be variadic. You cannot declare it in the cdef() with fixed arguments instead, even if you plan to only call it with these argument types. The reason is that some architectures have a different calling convention depending on whether the function signature is fixed or not. (On x86-64, the difference can sometimes be seen in PyPy’s JIT-generated code if some arguments are double.)

Note that the function signature int foo(); is interpreted by CFFI as equivalent to int foo(void);. This differs from the C standard, in which int foo(); is really like int foo(...); and can be called with any arguments. (This feature of C is a pre-C89 relic: the arguments cannot be accessed at all in the body of foo() without relying on compiler-specific extensions. Nowadays virtually all code with int foo(); really means int foo(void);.)

Memory pressure (PyPy)

This paragraph applies only to PyPy, because its garbage collector (GC) is different from CPython’s. It is very common in C code to have pairs of functions, one which performs memory allocations or acquires other resources, and the other which frees them again. Depending on how you structure your Python code, the freeing function is only called when the GC decides a particular (Python) object can be freed. This occurs notably in these cases:

  • If you use a __del__() method to call the freeing function.
  • If you use ffi.gc().
  • This does not occur if you call the freeing function at a deterministic time, like in a regular try: finally: block. It does however occur inside a generator— if the generator is not explicitly exhausted but forgotten at a yield point, then the code in the enclosing finally block is only invoked at the next GC.

In these cases, you may have to use the built-in function __pypy__.add_memory_pressure(n). Its argument n is an estimate of how much memory pressure to add. For example, if the pair of C functions that we are talking about is malloc(n) and free() or similar, you would call __pypy__.add_memory_pressure(n) after malloc(n). Doing so is not always a complete answer to the problem, but it makes the next GC occur earlier, which is often enough.

The same applies if the memory allocations are indirect, e.g. the C function allocates some internal data structures. In that case, call __pypy__.add_memory_pressure(n) with an argument n that is an rough estimation. Knowing the exact size is not important, and memory pressure doesn’t have to be manually brought down again after calling the freeing function. If you are writing wrappers for the allocating / freeing pair of functions, you should probably call __pypy__.add_memory_pressure() in the former even if the user may invoke the latter at a known point with a finally: block.

In case this solution is not sufficient, or if the acquired resource is not memory but something else more limited (like file descriptors), then there is no better way than restructuring your code to make sure the freeing function is called at a known point and not indirectly by the GC.

Note that in PyPy <= 5.6 the discussion above also applies to ffi.new(). In more recent versions of PyPy, both ffi.new() and ffi.new_allocator()() automatically account for the memory pressure they create. (In case you need to support both older and newer PyPy’s, try calling __pypy__.add_memory_pressure() anyway; it is better to overestimate than not account for the memory pressure.)

Extern “Python” (new-style callbacks)

When the C code needs a pointer to a function which invokes back a Python function of your choice, here is how you do it in the out-of-line API mode. The next section about Callbacks describes the ABI-mode solution.

This is new in version 1.4. Use old-style Callbacks if backward compatibility is an issue. (The original callbacks are slower to invoke and have the same issue as libffi’s callbacks; notably, see the warning. The new style described in the present section does not use libffi’s callbacks at all.)

In the builder script, declare in the cdef a function prefixed with extern "Python":

ffibuilder.cdef("""
    extern "Python" int my_callback(int, int);

    void library_function(int(*callback)(int, int));
""")
ffibuilder.set_source("_my_example", r"""
    #include <some_library.h>
""")

The function my_callback() is then implemented in Python inside your application’s code:

from _my_example import ffi, lib

@ffi.def_extern()
def my_callback(x, y):
    return 42

You obtain a <cdata> pointer-to-function object by getting lib.my_callback. This <cdata> can be passed to C code and then works like a callback: when the C code calls this function pointer, the Python function my_callback is called. (You need to pass lib.my_callback to C code, and not my_callback: the latter is just the Python function above, which cannot be passed to C.)

CFFI implements this by defining my_callback as a static C function, written after the set_source() code. The <cdata> then points to this function. What this function does is invoke the Python function object that is, at runtime, attached with @ffi.def_extern().

The @ffi.def_extern() decorator should be applied to global functions, one for each extern "Python" function of the same name.

To support some corner cases, it is possible to redefine the attached Python function by calling @ffi.def_extern() again for the same name—but this is not recommended! Better attach a single global Python function for this name, and write it more flexibly in the first place. This is because each extern "Python" function turns into only one C function. Calling @ffi.def_extern() again changes this function’s C logic to call the new Python function; the old Python function is not callable any more. The C function pointer you get from lib.my_function is always this C function’s address, i.e. it remains the same.

Extern “Python” and void * arguments

As described just before, you cannot use extern "Python" to make a variable number of C function pointers. However, achieving that result is not possible in pure C code either. For this reason, it is usual for C to define callbacks with a void *data argument. You can use ffi.new_handle() and ffi.from_handle() to pass a Python object through this void * argument. For example, if the C type of the callbacks is:

typedef void (*event_cb_t)(event_t *evt, void *userdata);

and you register events by calling this function:

void event_cb_register(event_cb_t cb, void *userdata);

Then you would write this in the build script:

ffibuilder.cdef("""
    typedef ... event_t;
    typedef void (*event_cb_t)(event_t *evt, void *userdata);
    void event_cb_register(event_cb_t cb, void *userdata);

    extern "Python" void my_event_callback(event_t *, void *);
""")
ffibuilder.set_source("_demo_cffi", r"""
    #include <the_event_library.h>
""")

and in your main application you register events like this:

from _demo_cffi import ffi, lib

class Widget(object):
    def __init__(self):
        userdata = ffi.new_handle(self)
        self._userdata = userdata     # must keep this alive!
        lib.event_cb_register(lib.my_event_callback, userdata)

    def process_event(self, evt):
        print "got event!"

@ffi.def_extern()
def my_event_callback(evt, userdata):
    widget = ffi.from_handle(userdata)
    widget.process_event(evt)

Some other libraries don’t have an explicit void * argument, but let you attach the void * to an existing structure. For example, the library might say that widget->userdata is a generic field reserved for the application. If the event’s signature is now this:

typedef void (*event_cb_t)(widget_t *w, event_t *evt);

Then you can use the void * field in the low-level widget_t * like this:

from _demo_cffi import ffi, lib

class Widget(object):
    def __init__(self):
        ll_widget = lib.new_widget(500, 500)
        self.ll_widget = ll_widget       # <cdata 'struct widget *'>
        userdata = ffi.new_handle(self)
        self._userdata = userdata        # must still keep this alive!
        ll_widget.userdata = userdata    # this makes a copy of the "void *"
        lib.event_cb_register(ll_widget, lib.my_event_callback)

    def process_event(self, evt):
        print "got event!"

@ffi.def_extern()
def my_event_callback(ll_widget, evt):
    widget = ffi.from_handle(ll_widget.userdata)
    widget.process_event(evt)

Extern “Python” accessed from C directly

In case you want to access some extern "Python" function directly from the C code written in set_source(), you need to write a forward declaration. (By default it needs to be static, but see next paragraph.) The real implementation of this function is added by CFFI after the C code—this is needed because the declaration might use types defined by set_source() (e.g. event_t above, from the #include), so it cannot be generated before.

ffibuilder.set_source("_demo_cffi", r"""
    #include <the_event_library.h>

    static void my_event_callback(widget_t *, event_t *);

    /* here you can write C code which uses '&my_event_callback' */
""")

This can also be used to write custom C code which calls Python directly. Here is an example (inefficient in this case, but might be useful if the logic in my_algo() is much more complex):

ffibuilder.cdef("""
    extern "Python" int f(int);
    int my_algo(int);
""")
ffibuilder.set_source("_example_cffi", r"""
    static int f(int);   /* the forward declaration */

    static int my_algo(int n) {
        int i, sum = 0;
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
            sum += f(i);     /* call f() here */
        return sum;
    }
""")

Extern “Python+C”

Functions declared with extern "Python" are generated as static functions in the C source. However, in some cases it is convenient to make them non-static, typically when you want to make them directly callable from other C source files. To do that, you can say extern "Python+C" instead of just extern "Python". New in version 1.6.

if the cdef contains then CFFI generates
extern "Python" int f(int); static int f(int) { /* code */ }
extern "Python+C" int f(int); int f(int) { /* code */ }

The name extern "Python+C" comes from the fact that we want an extern function in both senses: as an extern "Python", and as a C function that is not static.

You cannot make CFFI generate additional macros or other compiler-specific stuff like the GCC __attribute__. You can only control whether the function should be static or not. But often, these attributes must be written alongside the function header, and it is fine if the function implementation does not repeat them:

ffibuilder.cdef("""
    extern "Python+C" int f(int);      /* not static */
""")
ffibuilder.set_source("_example_cffi", r"""
    /* the forward declaration, setting a gcc attribute
       (this line could also be in some .h file, to be included
       both here and in the other C files of the project) */
    int f(int) __attribute__((visibility("hidden")));
""")

Extern “Python”: reference

extern "Python" must appear in the cdef(). Like the C++ extern "C" syntax, it can also be used with braces around a group of functions:

extern "Python" {
    int foo(int);
    int bar(int);
}

The extern "Python" functions cannot be variadic for now. This may be implemented in the future. (This demo shows how to do it anyway, but it is a bit lengthy.)

Each corresponding Python callback function is defined with the @ffi.def_extern() decorator. Be careful when writing this function: if it raises an exception, or tries to return an object of the wrong type, then the exception cannot be propagated. Instead, the exception is printed to stderr and the C-level callback is made to return a default value. This can be controlled with error and onerror, described below.

The @ffi.def_extern() decorator takes these optional arguments:

  • name: the name of the function as written in the cdef. By default it is taken from the name of the Python function you decorate.
  • error: the returned value in case the Python function raises an exception. It is 0 or null by default. The exception is still printed to stderr, so this should be used only as a last-resort solution.

  • onerror: if you want to be sure to catch all exceptions, use @ffi.def_extern(onerror=my_handler). If an exception occurs and onerror is specified, then onerror(exception, exc_value, traceback) is called. This is useful in some situations where you cannot simply write try: except: in the main callback function, because it might not catch exceptions raised by signal handlers: if a signal occurs while in C, the Python signal handler is called as soon as possible, which is after entering the callback function but before executing even the try:. If the signal handler raises, we are not in the try: except: yet.

    If onerror is called and returns normally, then it is assumed that it handled the exception on its own and nothing is printed to stderr. If onerror raises, then both tracebacks are printed. Finally, onerror can itself provide the result value of the callback in C, but doesn’t have to: if it simply returns None—or if onerror itself fails—then the value of error will be used, if any.

    Note the following hack: in onerror, you can access the original callback arguments as follows. First check if traceback is not None (it is None e.g. if the whole function ran successfully but there was an error converting the value returned: this occurs after the call). If traceback is not None, then traceback.tb_frame is the frame of the outermost function, i.e. directly the frame of the function decorated with @ffi.def_extern(). So you can get the value of argname in that frame by reading traceback.tb_frame.f_locals['argname'].

Callbacks (old style)

Here is how to make a new <cdata> object that contains a pointer to a function, where that function invokes back a Python function of your choice:

>>> @ffi.callback("int(int, int)")
>>> def myfunc(x, y):
...    return x + y
...
>>> myfunc
<cdata 'int(*)(int, int)' calling <function myfunc at 0xf757bbc4>>

Note that "int(*)(int, int)" is a C function pointer type, whereas "int(int, int)" is a C function type. Either can be specified to ffi.callback() and the result is the same.

Warning

Callbacks are provided for the ABI mode or for backward compatibility. If you are using the out-of-line API mode, it is recommended to use the extern “Python” mechanism instead of callbacks: it gives faster and cleaner code. It also avoids several issues with old-style callbacks:

  • On less common architecture, libffi is more likely to crash on callbacks (e.g. on NetBSD);
  • On hardened systems like PAX and SELinux, the extra memory protections can interfere (for example, on SELinux you need to run with deny_execmem set to off).

Note also that a cffi fix for the latter issue was attempted—see the ffi_closure_alloc branch—but was not merged because it creates potential memory corruption with fork().

Warning: like ffi.new(), ffi.callback() returns a cdata that has ownership of its C data. (In this case, the necessary C data contains the libffi data structures to do a callback.) This means that the callback can only be invoked as long as this cdata object is alive. If you store the function pointer into C code, then make sure you also keep this object alive for as long as the callback may be invoked. The easiest way to do that is to always use @ffi.callback() at module-level only, and to pass “context” information around with ffi.new_handle(), if possible. Example:

# a good way to use this decorator is once at global level
@ffi.callback("int(int, void *)")
def my_global_callback(x, handle):
    return ffi.from_handle(handle).some_method(x)


class Foo(object):

    def __init__(self):
        handle = ffi.new_handle(self)
        self._handle = handle   # must be kept alive
        lib.register_stuff_with_callback_and_voidp_arg(my_global_callback, handle)

    def some_method(self, x):
        print "method called!"

(See also the section about extern “Python” above, where the same general style is used.)

Note that callbacks of a variadic function type are not supported. A workaround is to add custom C code. In the following example, a callback gets a first argument that counts how many extra int arguments are passed:

# file "example_build.py"

import cffi

ffibuilder = cffi.FFI()
ffibuilder.cdef("""
    int (*python_callback)(int how_many, int *values);
    void *const c_callback;   /* pass this const ptr to C routines */
""")
ffibuilder.set_source("_example", r"""
    #include <stdarg.h>
    #include <alloca.h>
    static int (*python_callback)(int how_many, int *values);
    static int c_callback(int how_many, ...) {
        va_list ap;
        /* collect the "..." arguments into the values[] array */
        int i, *values = alloca(how_many * sizeof(int));
        va_start(ap, how_many);
        for (i=0; i<how_many; i++)
            values[i] = va_arg(ap, int);
        va_end(ap);
        return python_callback(how_many, values);
    }
""")
ffibuilder.compile(verbose=True)
# file "example.py"

from _example import ffi, lib

@ffi.callback("int(int, int *)")
def python_callback(how_many, values):
    print ffi.unpack(values, how_many)
    return 0
lib.python_callback = python_callback

Deprecated: you can also use ffi.callback() not as a decorator but directly as ffi.callback("int(int, int)", myfunc). This is discouraged: using this a style, we are more likely to forget the callback object too early, when it is still in use.

The ffi.callback() decorator also accepts the optional argument error, and from CFFI version 1.2 the optional argument onerror. These two work in the same way as described above for extern “Python”.

Windows: calling conventions

On Win32, functions can have two main calling conventions: either “cdecl” (the default), or “stdcall” (also known as “WINAPI”). There are also other rare calling conventions, but these are not supported. New in version 1.3.

When you issue calls from Python to C, the implementation is such that it works with any of these two main calling conventions; you don’t have to specify it. However, if you manipulate variables of type “function pointer” or declare callbacks, then the calling convention must be correct. This is done by writing __cdecl or __stdcall in the type, like in C:

@ffi.callback("int __stdcall(int, int)")
def AddNumbers(x, y):
    return x + y

or:

ffibuilder.cdef("""
    struct foo_s {
        int (__stdcall *MyFuncPtr)(int, int);
    };
""")

__cdecl is supported but is always the default so it can be left out. In the cdef(), you can also use WINAPI as equivalent to __stdcall. As mentioned above, it is mostly not needed (but doesn’t hurt) to say WINAPI or __stdcall when declaring a plain function in the cdef(). (The difference can still be seen if you take explicitly a pointer to this function with ffi.addressof(), or if the function is extern "Python".)

These calling convention specifiers are accepted but ignored on any platform other than 32-bit Windows.

In CFFI versions before 1.3, the calling convention specifiers are not recognized. In API mode, you could work around it by using an indirection, like in the example in the section about Callbacks ("example_build.py"). There was no way to use stdcall callbacks in ABI mode.

FFI Interface

(The reference for the FFI interface has been moved to the next page.)